Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America (Second Edition)

Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America (Second Edition)
Author: William L. White

The product of more than 35 years of research, the Second Edition of Slaying the Dragon is the remarkable story of America’s personal and institutional responses to alcoholism and other addictions. It is the story of mutual aid societies spanning Native American recovery circles, the Washingtonians, the Ribbon Reform Clubs, Twelve Step Fellowships and more recent secular and religious mutual aid alternatives. It is a story of addiction treatment institutions from the inebriate asylums through rise of modern addiction treatment. It is also the story of the rise of a new addiction recovery advocacy movement that promises to transform the future of addiction treatment and recovery in the United States and beyond. Author William White provides a sweeping and engaging history of one of America’s most enduring problems and the profession and social institutions that have sought solutions to it.  

Section Titles include:

  • The Rise of Addiction and Personal Recovery Movements in the Nineteenth Century
  • The Birth of Addiction Treatment in America
  • Evolving Approaches to Alcoholism Treatment: 1860-1940
  • Treating Addictions to Narcotics and Other Drugs
  • A.A. and the Modern Alcoholism Movement
  • Mid-Century Addiction Treatment
  • The Evolution of Modern Addiction Treatment 
  • The Recovery Revolution
View the complete Table of Contents by clicking here.

View the complete List of References by clicking here.

View the corrected Name and Subject Indexes by clicking here.


Slaying the Dragon

The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Prologue: The Problem of Language
Section One: The Rise of Addiction and Personal Recovery Movement in the Twentieth Century
  1. The Seeds of Addiction Medicine and Personal Recovery Movements
    • Early American Drinking
    • Benjamin Rush and the Birth of the American Disease Concept of Alcoholism
    • A New Republic on a Binge
    • The Rise and Evolution of the American Temperance Movement
    • Alcoholics and the Evolution in Temperance Philosophy
    • Pre-Washingtonian Involvement of Alcoholics in the Temperance Movement
    • From Individual Struggle to Shared Recovery
    • The Tortured Saga of Luther Benson
  2. The Washingtonian Revival
    • Founding and Growth
    • The Washingtonian Program
    • John Hawkins and John Gough
    • The Washingtonian Demise
    • The Washingtonian Legacy
  3. Fraternal Temperance Societies and Reform Clubs
    • The Reform Clubs
    • Osgood's Reformed Drinkers Club
    • Reynold's Red Ribbon Reform Clubs
    • Francis Murphy's Blue ribbon Reform Clubs
    • Reform Clubs' Operation and Spread
    • The Business Men's Moderation Society
Section Two: The Birth of Addiction Treatment in America
  1. The Rise and Fall of Inebriate Homes and Asylums
    • Pre-Asylum Days: Care of the Addicted
    • The Earliest Institutions
    • Types of Institutions
    • Sponsorship and Financing
    • Relationship to Other Community Institutions
    • Early Professionalization: The American Association for the Cure of Inebriates
    • The Decline of the Inebriate Asylums
    • A Postmortem of the Inebriate Asylum Movement
    • Legacy
    • Summary
  2. Inebriate Homes and Asylums: Treatment Philosophies, Methods, and Outcomes
    • The Staff
    • The Patients: Demographic Profile
    • The Patients: Clinical Profile
    • Treatment Philosophies
    • Major Treatment Methods
    • The Family and the Inebriate Asylum
    • Aftercare
    • Reported Treatment Outcomes
    • The Treatment of Alcoholism and Other Addictions in Women
  3. Four Institutional Histories
    • The New York State Inebriate Asylum
    • The Boston Washingtonian Home
    • The Chicago Washingtonian Home
    • The San Francisco Home for the Care of the Inebriate
  4. Franchising Addiction Treatment: The Keeley Institutes
    • Humble Beginnings to a National Phenomenon
    • Keeley: On the Causes of Inebriety
    • The Keeley Patients
    • The Keeley Staff
    • The Keeley Treatment
    • The Mail Order Business
    • The Keeley Leagues
    • Reported Treatment Outcomes
    • Other Gold Cures
    • Early Controversies and Critics
    • Turn of the Century Decline
    • The Later Keeley Years: 1900-1966
    • The Keeley Legacy
  5. Miracle Cures of Alcoholism and Other Addictions
    • The Context
    • The Products
    • Promotional Schemes
    • Exposes and Legislative Reform
    • Continued Presence of Fraudulent "Cures"
    • Fraud as a Theme in the Early History of Treatment
  6. Religious Conversions as a Remedy for Alcoholism
    • Religion and Recovery: Historical Roots
    • Skid Row, the Bowery and the Birth of the Rescue Mission
    • Jerry McAuley's Water Street Mission
    • The Salvation Army
    • America's Keswick Colony of Mercy
    • Early Professional Views on Religion and Recovery
    • Conversion and Recovery: The Ideas of William James
    • Later Professional Perspectives
    • Critics of Religious Approaches to Alcoholism Recovery
Section Three: Evolving Approaches to Alcoholism Treatment: 1860-1940
  1. Alcoholism Treatment Settings: 1900-1940
    • The Inebriate Farm/Colony
    • Alcoholism and City Hospitals
    • Alcoholics in Local Psychopathic Hospitals and State Psychiatric Hospital
    • Drying Out the Rich and Famous: A Continuing Story
    • The Saga of Willie Seabrook
    • The Charles B Towns Hospital for the Treatment of Drug and Alcoholic Addictions
  2. Physical Methods of Treatment and Containment
    • Physical Treatments for Alcoholism Between 1840 and 1950: An Overview
    • Eugenics: Sterilization and Benign Neglect
    • Natural Therapeutics
    • The Water Cures
    • Drug Therapies: 1860-1930
    • Convulsive Therapies
    • Psychosurgery and Addiction: The Lobotomy Era
    • Miscellaneous Treatments
  3. Psychological Approaches to Alcoholism and Addiction Treatment
    • The Psychoanalytic Approach
    • The Emmanuel Clinic and the Lay Therapy Movement
    • Aversion Therapy: Early Efforts
Section Four: Treating Addictions to Narcotics and Other Drugs
  1. The Treatment of Addiction to Narcotics and Other Drugs: 1880-1925
    • The Use of Cocaine as an Addiction Cure and Freud's Retraction
    • Cocaine, Morphine and the Father of American Surgery
    • Opiate Addiction as a Disease
    • Drug Treatments and Drug Cures Before the Harrison Act
    • Drug Treatment, The Harrison Act, Drug Enforcement and the Supreme Court
    • The Morphine Maintenance Clinics
  2. The Treatment of Addiction to Narcotics and Other Drugs: 1925-1950
    • Voices of Protest
    • 1920-1950: Medical Detoxification and Hidden Drug Maintenance
    • Dr. Thomas Ratigan, Jr.: Villain or Hero?
    • Phantastica and Narcotics Research: 1920-1935
    • The Federal Narcotic Farms
    • The Addiction Research Center
    • The World Outside Lexington and Ft. Worth
Section Five: A.A. and the Modern Alcoholism Movement
  1. The Birth of Alcoholics Anonymous: A Brief History
    • Carl Jung and Rowland H.'s Failed Psychotherapy
    • The Oxford Group
    • The Oxford Groups, Ebby T. And Bill W.'s "Hot Flash"
    • Bill W. Meets Dr. Bob
    • A.A. Identity and Early AA. Group
    • Grandiose Visions
    • The "Big Book"
    • Early Rituals
    • The Period of Explosive Growth
    • A Maturing A.A.
    • Those Who Shaped the A.A. Treatment Relationship
  2. The Program of Alcoholics Anonymous
    • Defining the A.A. Program
    • A.A. Steps and A.A. Practices
    • A.A. Experience and A.A. Logic
    • Identity Reconstruction Within A.A.
    • Reconstruction of Personal Relationships
    • Reconstruction of Daily Lifestyle Within A.A.
    • Reframing: The Curse that Became a Blessing
    • The Recovery Program of A.A. and Its Predecessors: Shared Characteristics
    • Innovations in A.A.'s Program of Recovery
    • A.A.'s Organizational Structure and Practices
    • A.A.'s Mission
    • A.A.'s Philosophy of Addiction
    • A.A.'s Prescription for Short- and Long-term Recovery
    • Carrying the Message of A.A. Recovery
    • Internal A.A. Relationships
    • Defining A.A. Membership
    • The Expected Duration of A.A. Participation
    • Power and Decision-making in A.A.
    • The Voice of A.A.
    • A.A. Relationships with Allied Fields and Related Causes
    • Managing Member Growth
    • Leader Development
    • Managing the Issues of Money, Property and Personal Ambition
    • Social Context and Organizational Endurance
  3. A.A. Critics and A.A. Legacy
    • Stretching A.A.'s Gateway of Entry: Women and People of Color in A.A.
    • Were the experiences of women and people of color instrumental in shaping the Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions of A.A.?
    • Has A.A. adapted its program to address the special needs of women and people of color?
    • What is the degree of participation of women and people of color in A.A.
    • A.A.'s Place in History
    • A.A. and the Professional Care of Alcoholics: 1935-1960
      • Visions of A.A. Hospitals
      • The Knickerbocker Paradox: Actions of A.A. Versus Actions of A.A. Members
      • St. Thomas: The Beginning of a Model
      • Model Evolution: A.A. Involvement with Public and Private Hospitals
      • Model Extension: A.A. and Private Hospitals, Sanitaria
      • A.A. Members as Moral and Business Entrepreneurs
      • The Boundary Between Treatment and A.A.: The Story of High Watch
      • The Distinction Between A.A. and Treatment
      • A.A. and Alcoholism Treatment: A Synopsis
    • The "Modern Alcoholism Movement": The Core
      • The Context
      • The Alcohol and Alcoholism Movements
      • The Volatility of the Post-Repeal Period
      • Research Council on Problems of Alcohol
      • The Yale Center of Alcohol Studies
      • The National Committee for Education on Alcoholism
    • The "Modern Alcoholism Movement": The Periphery
      • Changing Medical Opinion on Alcoholics and Alcoholism
      • The Alcoholism Movement in the Workplace
      • Alcoholism Movement Within the Church
      • Municipal, State and Federal Responses to Alcoholism
      • R. Brinkley Smithers: Private Philanthropy and the Alcoholism Movement
      • The Role of A.A. and Recovered Alcoholics in the Alcoholism Movement
      • The Role of the Alcohol Beverage Industry in the Alcoholism Movement
      • The Legacies of the Alcoholism Movement
      • Origin of the Modern Disease Concept
    • Section Six: Mid-Century Addiction Treatment
      1. The Birth and Spread of the "Minnesota Model"
        • Pre-A.A. History
        • The Beginning: The Story of Pat C.
        • Pioneer House
        • Hazelden: The Early Years
        • Willmar State Hospital
        • Hazelden: The Continuing Story
        • Further Minnesota Developments
        • Defining the Minnesota Model
        • Why Minnesota
        • The Spread of the Minnesota Model
        • Further Contributions of the Minnesota Model
      2. Mid-Century Alcoholism Treatments
        • Organizational Activity in the Alcoholism Field: 1950-1960
        • Expanding Knowledge and Ideas About Alcoholism
        • Mid-Century Alcoholism Treatment: An Overview
        • A.A., Al-Anon, Alateen and Mutual Aid: 1950-1971
        • Other Mutual Aid Societies: Alcoholics Victorious and the Calix Society
      3. Mid-Century Alcoholism Treatment: Treatment Methods
        • Hypnosis Revisited
        • Physical Methods of Alcoholism Treatment: An Overview
        • Nutrition, Alcoholism, and Vitamin Therapy
        • ACTH: Alcoholism and Endocrine Dysfunction
        • The Use of Tranquilizers, Anti-depressants, Mood Stabilizers, and Sedatives
        • Benzedrine in the Treatment of Alcoholism
        • Antabuse and Other Antidipsotroopics in the Treatment of Alcoholism
        • LSD and the Treatment of Alcoholism
        • Miscellaneous and Multi Drug Therapies
        • The Carbon Dioxide Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Addiction
        • Advances in Psychosocial Rehabilitation Technology
        • The Halfway House Movement
      4. Mid-Century Addiction Treatment: The Rise of New Approaches
        • The Legal Context
        • Medical and Psychiatric Context
        • Juvenile Addiction: The Story of Riverside Hospital
        • Community-based Support of Institutionalized Addict
        • Religious Approaches to Addiction Recovery
        • Narcotics Anonymous
        • Synanon: The Birth of Ex-addict Directed Therapeutic Communities
        • The Therapeutic Community Movement
        • The Therapeutic Community: Treatment Methods
      5. Mid-Century Addiction Treatment: Part Two
        • Civil Commitments
        • Methadone and Modern Narcotic Maintenance
        • The Methadone Critics
        • Methadone, Watergate and Federal Narcotics Control
        • Narcotics Antagonists
        • Multimodality Treatment Systems: The Story of the Illinois Drug Abuse Program
        • Lexington and Forth Worth: The Twilight Years
      Section Seven: Addiction Treatment in the Late Twentieth Century
      1. The Modern Evolution of Addiction Treatment
        • Reaching Critical Mass
        • The Cooperative Commission on the Study of Alcoholism
        • The Deluge of Addiction Treatment Legislation
        • Local Sponsorship and Organization
        • Two Worlds: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse
        • Early Programs: What it Was Like
        • Alcoholism: An Insurable Illness
        • Program Accreditation and Licensure
        • Three Worlds: Public, Private and Military
        • The Rebirth of Addiction Medicine
        • An Evolving Workforce
        • A Hidden Story: The Exploitation and Relapse of Recovering Alcoholics and Addicts
        • Professionalization: Training, Credentialing and Worker Certification
        • Explosive Growth
        • Early Intervention Programs
        • Recovery as a Cultural Phenomenon
        • Expansion and Diversification of Mutual Aid Societies
        • Competition, Profit, and Profiteering
        • Ethical Context and Breaches of Ethical Conduct
        • The Financial Backlash
        • The Ideological and Cultural Backlash
        • The Crash
        • A Panicked Field in Search of Its Soul and Its Future
      2. Modern Addiction Treatment: Seminal Ideas and Evolving Treatment Technology
        • Eleven Seminal/Controversial Ideas
          1. The Concept of Inebriety Reborn
          2. From a Single to a Multiple Pathway Model of Addiction and Recovery
          3. The Biology of Addiction
          4. Toward a Developmental Model of Alcoholism Recovery
          5. Addiction asa a Chronic Disease
          6. The Continuum of Care Concept
          7. Rethinking Motivation: Pain versus Hope
          8. Needle Exchanges: A Harm Reduction Case Study
          9. Natural Recovery, Spontaneous Remission and Maturing Out
          10. The Question of Controlled Drinking and Drug Use
          11. Codependency: Popularization and Backlash
        • Treatment of Special Populations and Treatment in Special Settings
        • The Public Inebriate
        • Changing Responses to the Drunk Driver
        • Gender Specific Treatment
        • Adolescent Treatment
        • The Employed Alcoholic/Addict
        • Treating Impaired Professionals
        • Treatment in the Military
        • Culturally Competent Treatment
        • The Addicted Offender
        • Treating Addicts with HIV/AIDS
        • The Multiple Problem Client
        • Modern Addiction Treatment Technologies
      3. Parkside: A Rich Legacy and a Cautionary Tale
        • The Birth
        • Early Influences
        • The Early Program
        • Contrasts Between Lutheran General and Hazelden
        • The Treatment Team
        • The Role of the Alcoholism Counselor
        • The A.A. Treatment Center Relationship
        • Al-Anon and Family Programming
        • Early Diversification
        • Evaluation Research
        • Model Dissemination
        • Explosive Growth
        • Later Diversification
        • The Demise
        • Lessons and Legacies
        • A Lasting Legacy
      4. Some Closing Reflections on the Lessons of History
        • Approaching History
        • Addiction Recovery
        • Addiction Science
        • The Rise of Treatment Institutions and Mutual Aid Societies
        • Observations on the Treatment Field
        • Treatment in Relationship to Community and Society
        • The Fall of Treatment Institutions and Mutual Aid Societies
        • The Future of Treatment
        • Fiinal Words
      • Endnotes
      • Index
      • About the Author/CHS

ISBN: 0692213465
ISBN: 978-0-692-21346-9
USD $24.95
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